CRJ week 9 – Critical Theory

The topic this week of Critical Theory has been really stimulating and interesting, and has required me to look far more critically at my own work.  This has allowed me to refocus and given me new inspiration for what I’m going to do over the next three modules; which is a very good thing as I was feeling a little ‘stuck’.

The presentations I have watched and the articles I’ve read have given me much to think about,  and I have been a) considering where I stand in relation to various theories, and b) looking at my own practice, trying to decide where it sits theoretically, and what I can improve in this respect as I develop my future research and output.

Despite the fact that Francis Hodgson (2012, Quality Matters) stated he didn’t believe that photography to be elitist; what he was saying was, in my view, just that. If we are able to create and share a common language when describing quality, that immediately devalues the opinion of anyone who does not have the same vernacular. Additionally, can a set of ‘rules’ define quality, when creativity and invention are not static?  There can be no new valued style, form, interpretation or theory unless the definition of quality is refined alongside these progressions.

Reading the newspaper articles by Sally Mann , (in the New York Times, 2015)  and Tierney Gearon  (in the Guardian, 2001), I was struck by the naivety of the women, who both seemed surprised by the reaction the photographs of their nude children received. Their intentions had been quite different, wishing to capture childhood innocence in family life.  However, once the photographs reached the public domain the interpretation altered, allowing the viewer to reach their own conclusions.

In this week’s online forum we were asked to post a picture and describe two different interpretations of it.

This was my contribition:


Photographer Cezar Dezfuli recently won the Taylor Wessing prize for this photograph of a migrant named Sumaila, taken off the Libyan coast last year. He took pictures of all the 118 refugees who had been rescued by a German boat. Dezfuli didn’t realise the poignancy of the expression on Sumaila’s face until he looked back at them all later. He said “There was something about the way he looked into the camera and something in the clothes he was wearing that gave the photo a texture. I don’t know exactly what it was, but it just summed up the story I was trying to tell really well.”

My interpretation 1 – the Guardian’s text over the photo says ‘ Who is the man in the photograph?’

Who is he? Where is he from? Why is he looking so intensely at the camera? What has happened to him? Where is he going? Who is he with ?

My interpretation 2 – the composition of the photograph. The man looks as if has quite literally come straight out of the water, and the way the eyes sit just above the horizon is powerful. The shadow of his head tells us where the sun was. His collar bone is protruding, is he under nourished? He is not smiling. His clothing is dishevelled and dirty. The sea is calm.

The first interpretation questions; the second is factually based, with the composition leading the viewer towards understanding the greater context of the photograph.

In my own practice, my pictures tend to be about something, rather than of something. The difficulty lies in how to allow the viewer to read the picture in the way I have intended; as the meanings I try to embody are not usually transparent. As my work develops, this is something that will need consideration and resolving.


For instance, the above image is one of a series. They are an account of the deconstructions and reconstructions of an old photograph in a frame which I bought last weekend at a flea market for £2. It is not my intention for the viewer to think that this is a photograph of the sum of its parts; but rather what is symbolised by this act of destruction. This small piece of family history was discarded, with responsibility passing to a third party, a stranger, to dispose of. Note the duplicity here –  I am at the same time destroying and recreating.

This topic has given me much to think about and has already changed the way I work.

CRJ week 7


This week we were asked to work in pairs and set each other a micro project . Mine was set by Jo:

Produce 6 images of aspects of one local park.
Must be clear specific elements of the park – objects or people, not large landscape shots. 
No trees or flowers as the main focus. 
Format etc up to you. 

Immediately I knew that I would go to Wicksteed Park as it’s right on my doorstep and beautiful at this time of year. I was pleased that the brief didn’t ask for landscape photography, as I like to go for shots that are a little different .

Firstly I planned to take the six in a square format, and arrange together  them in one larger image . However I  soon changed my mind, as I wanted to be more creative with their arrangement. My second plan was to take the photographs on my Sony camera, then print them on my Fujifilm Instax printer, allowing me to arrange the prints in a way that would join lines, shapes or colours that I had chosen.

Unfortunately I encountered a problem with this, as I was unable to power my mini printer, despite many attempts throughout the week to source a power cable or batteries. This was overly complicated and after 5 days of trying I decided to opt for plan C instead. Luckily I have hopefully got batteries arriving soon so I’ll be able to use it again.

Back to the park…walking through it in the hour before it closed, as the light began to leave, I looked for different angles and perspectives.  Sometimes I shot upwards (such as placing the camera underneath a sign), sometimes I shot downwards (onto a gate), and sometimes I keyed in a slow shutter setting and put it behind my back as I walked along. The photo in the header for this post was again taken on a slow shutter speed as I turned round, trying to keep the hand held camera horizontal.

The six I chose all have a common theme of either circles, posts or lines.  Some of them are edited afterwards, mostly subtly.

I chose to present them as a slideshow, so that the chosen contours move through into one another, connecting them all together in some way.  Although the brief specified no trees or flowers, it was almost impossible not to have one or two in the background.



Xmas 1917 as a stimulus – CRJ week four

This week we were set a collaboration task, which proved to be logistically more difficult than I imagined it would.  The topic for the work was completely up to us.

After finding a family portrait postcard photo, with the only words written on the back ‘Xmas 1917’, I made the decision to look at family portraiture through the following decades, with the ambition of arriving at the present date – 100 years seemed like a good idea, but it turned out to be a bit of a mammoth task!

Unfortunately, work loads meant that my partner in crime and I weren’t able to talk properly until the night before our webinar. So after discussing the initial idea (the postcard) we pretty much went about it alone until then.

I asked friends on Facebook if they had any suitable photos I could use – I gathered two this way, a few from mine and my husband’s family archives, and obtained the rest via the Google search engine.  This in itself presented problems as I had no way of knowing whether searching for British family portraits would also yield portraiture from other countries. There were many very early photos to choose from.  There were less from the 1930s onwards; and the later the decade, the more difficult it became to find official  family portraits.

Settling on six photographs, and after having read Paul Martin Lester’s Visual Analysis, I set about analysing them – although had I done so according to all of his six stages this would have taken considerably more time.

A quick chat the night before with my collaborator, and all was set to present my work the following morning at our webinar session. I had some interesting feedback. One of the group gave me some background historical information about the location of the studio where one of the portraits was taken (Bow in the 1960s). My tutor also introduced me to a couple of search engines that I’d not heard of before, where the search results will be less biased towards the UK.  Apparently is a collaboration between a photographer and a programmer.

It was interesting seeing the other team’s collaborative project, which was based on a couple of triptych slides of bridges. The discussions which followed were largely focused around locations, different ways of presenting work, themes, output.

I’ve realised that I should start planning not only what my Research Project will be, but how I am going to make it accessible / present it.

I tried hard not to ‘make anything’ this week, but by Thursday I couldn’t wait any longer! The photo montage at the top of the page is some of the mothers and children photographs I sourced – one from every decade between 1910- 1960.  Having said that, the relationship between the subjects was another assumption that I had to make.

The chosen photos with their basic analysis’ are below.

Continue reading “Xmas 1917 as a stimulus – CRJ week four”

Reflective moments – CRJ week three

In response to the debate surrounding his Hipstamatic photographs of soldiers during the Afghan war, Photojournalist Damon Winter stated that it was “never my intention for these photos to be seen only in the context of the tool by which they were made’; and that there are two valid fundamentals involved in the making of the image – aesthetics and content. However, I consider there to be a third, equal component – that of the photographer’s intention.

We may draw parallels to the aesthetics of Art , for example “Equivalent VIII” (commonly known as Bricks) by Carl Andre in the 1970s.  His installation was a minimalist oblong arrangement of bricks. In this case, the piece was considered to be a work of art because the artist intended it so, and was further validated by being exhibited by Tate Gallery. Critics claimed that the Tate had been duped, others defended its decision as a major player in the international world of contemporary art.

I would argue that by applying smartphone filters to his work, Winter deliberately intended to create an aesthetic piece of work, and in this case the original publisher of his photographs in 2010 (New York Times) was in fact the exhibitor, just as was the Tate when it exhibited Winter’s Bricks.

If his intention was to create an intimate narrative of the soldier’s lives, Winter succeeded. In his creative use of the tools he had to hand, he was able to produce a set of controversial photographs which had their validity questioned and discussed.

Nowadays of course, the Hipstamatic filter can be applied after the picture has been taken.  If an individual wishes to, they may take a photo on a DSLR, upload it to their smartphone and then apply Hipstamatic (or other) filters.

With photography being so immediately accessible these days to anyone with a smartphone, the meaning of the word ‘photographer’ has had to adapt to change, although the general public, in my experience, still view photography as a profession that requires lots of expensive equipment, technical expertise and a repertoire of carefully staged shots (whether it be events or landscape etc).  However, images made on the smartphone by ‘citizen witnessing’ – a phrase coined by Stuart Alan in his ‘blurring boundaries: professional and citizen photojournalism in a digital age’ (2013), can be sent anywhere around the world in seconds – therefore allowing the casual bystander to become an ‘accidental’ photojournalist. Newspaper and online publishers typically pay less for these images than those from a professional photographer.

It’s too late now to turn back the clock for the place of citizen photojournalism, with or without filters. We’ve opted for retro style images in certain situations because they sell – the iPhone stock app Stockimo (a sister company of Alamy) actively encourages its contributors to apply filters.

                                                           Work in progress



As per my previous post, this week I’ve been experimenting with prisms as well as different printing techniques.




I also created a montage, based on a photo I took in Bournemouth earlier this year (original below).






Here is the same picture with the left half photoshopped to include fragmented photos from the same town. I paid attention to shape, contour and colour.

Unfortunately it doesn’t work as I intended, it needs more light and smaller pieces in it.

Bournemouth lights3

Once I had printed this out, I laid it on my desk with the image from the bottom left corner displayed on my computer screen.  It’s a photo c.1903 of people on the beach at Bournemouth.  I reflected some of this image downwards using the prism. It’s a clumsy attempt but it’s given me a lot to consider. I’d previously seen some of Sam Hurd’s prism photography online.


So much to think about that I’m going to have to leave the practical element alone and do a lot more reading and reflection this week, to hopefully give me inspiration to find a direction to take my photography in.

My tutor has suggested I look at the work of Fred Ritchin, Emily Allchurch, Erik Kessels, Tom Butler, Joachim Schmid and others.  And I need to read more articles on the reading list. 



Antique photo + DSLR, Smartphone, Prism, Instax

After reading articles about the place of smartphone amateur and professional photography, particularly with reference to apps such as Hipstamatic, today I set up a small exercise in the garden.  All I needed for this was my DSLR with a macro lens,  an antique photograph, an eight inch prism, and sunshine. I took a number of images however the objective was to use multiple simple techniques rather than to find a perfect shot.

Once I had taken a photo that I was satisfied with, I uploaded my chosen picture to my smartphone, applied a Hipstamatic filter to it, and finally printed it out on an Instax Fujimilm portable printer. (The kind where you watch the photo develop).

What could we call this fusion style of photography?

CRJ: Positions and Practice week one

Week One. September 29th 2017

For me, this week has been exciting, stimulating and a bit fraught too as I began to get used to new learning tools, especially finding my way around Canvas, the place where all our module details, reading material, discussion areas, links to webinar sign-ups, student support, tutorials, etc are kept.  As I navigated the site I was constantly discovering new areas and information that I needed to know yesterday – so it felt like I was on the back foot for some of the time.  However, hopefully I now have got my head around it and will start week two having a better understanding of how it all works, and will rearrange my schedule for MA work accordingly!

One of the biggest challenges I’ve faced this week is being able to physically put into words the thoughts and ideas surrounding my work. Being a teacher I am confident when talking to others, however talking about my own work is more difficult –  and something that I’m going to have to improve on. I guess this is where this journal will help – by writing about what I’ve learned and the resulting impact on my own work should enable me to critically evaluate it using both written, and verbal mediums.

The topic of the week was Positions & Practice – the Global image, culminating with a practical activity and then discussing it in a webinar. It was interesting to see other students’ work and noticing how many varied interpretations there were of the task. I enjoyed seeing them and listening to our course director Jesse’s feedback.

So, the project was this:

Having reflected on the content discussed in this week’s presentations, ‘re-make’ an image of your choice. You may wish to re-make an image from one of the presentations, or a completely different image of your choice…Post your pair of images to the forum below (you will need to post before you can see any of the work of your peers) along with a few lines explaining your thinking here, in terms of your choice of image and how you feel it relates to theme.  

Here is my contribution:

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My first photograph is of a postcard sent to me from Marrakesh around twenty years ago. Its composition interests me – not only in its triangular structure, but more specifically the different ways the subject matter can be interpreted, without the knowledge or perception of the characters within it. The two people in the scene are looking away from the camera, with a single object facing it – an oud- like traditional instrument from the region.  In the distance, the second person (unseen) is (presumably) sheltering from the sun underneath a black umbrella; which as we know, is unlikely to be very cooling. The private, closed language of the photo has been made public.

The second photograph has the oud player superimposed on a snap I took on a rainy day in Paris this year.  Three tourists with umbrellas, again oblivious to the camera, face towards it; their umbrellas enabling them to continue their sight  seeing. Why so oblivious? In such a place where everybody has a camera or smart phone out, tourists  automatically step into a plethora of footage.

With the comparative ease of global travel this century and the mass production and circulation of images, cultural boundaries can blur. The umbrella is an object of protection and I find their designs and colours question my interpretation and understanding of what they represent. In this picture, I wanted to replace one umbrella with another and see how it can change our perception of reality. Without his instrument the oud player is no longer the focus of the image. Instead, the young boy is centrepiece as he explores and points. The man in his traditional clothing would not have looked out of place in a cosmopolitan European city, and his original solitary pensive gesture becomes lost here.

However, for me the resulting image is not a political statement, nor necessarily a cultural one. It’s more about the way the characters are looking – away, or towards; mirror or window. In answer to one of the questions asked this week, I usually see my own work as more reflective of the ‘within’, rather than a window on the world.

In my feedback, Jesse suggested that I might cut up some of my images, to make a more tangible montage – so I will be giving that a go at some point, as well as looking at the work of John Stezaker as suggested.




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